Hepatitis B virus (HBV) disease is the main causes of liver cancer. Liver cancer relates to the regularity of chronic hepatitis B virus disease. Studies in animals also have provided that hepatitis B virus can cause liver cancer. For example, liver cancer develops in other mammals that are obviously infected with hepatitis B virus-related viruses. As a final point, by infecting transgenic mice with certain parts of the hepatitis B virus, scientists caused liver cancer to develop in mice that do not usually develop liver cancer.
It is not easy to find out what causes cancer from one person to another, but researchers have found several factors that add to a person’s likelihood of developing liver cancer. Some risk factors for liver cancer include:
Viral hepatitis – Researchers have linked the disease of hepatitis-B virus (HBV) and hepatitis-C virus (HCV) with the progress of liver tumor. It is estimated that 10-20 percent of people with HBV will increase liver malignancy, and HBV is present in about one fourth of cases of liver cancer in the United States. Exposure to aflatoxin – This is a carcinogenic body that can be found in molds that may infect peanuts, corn, grains and seeds. In tropical and subtropical regions, measures have been taken to change and get better storage in order to decrease exposure to aflatoxins. Cirrhosis – The Countrywide Cancer Institute estimates that 5-10 percent of people with cirrhosis will develop liver tumor. Cirrhosis caused by viral hepatitis B and C, alcohol abuse and certain genetic disorders puts people at higher risk for developing liver malignancy. Exposure to vinyl chloride and thorium dioxide – Revelation to these chemicals is more to be expected to cause angiosarcoma of the liver, a different type of tumor than HCC. They add to the risk of developing HCC to a far lesser degree. Birth control pills – Types of by word of mouth contraceptives used in the past was linked to some varieties of liver cancer, but infrequently to HCC. Most of these types of oral contraceptives are no longer available, and it is unknown if those now in use increase risk for HCC. Anabolic steroids – Long-term steroid use can a little increase the risk for liver tumor. Arsenic – In some parts of the world, drinking water contaminated with arsenic causes increased risk for developing liver malignancy.
Treatment of liver cancer
The treatment of liver malignancy is overall condition of the patient. First action if liver tumor is Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is a powerful drug to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy is a not effective not some cases of liver malignancy but type of chemotherapy is known as chemoembolization is an central part of treatment for HCC. Chemoembolization causes many of the same side special effects as other forms of chemotherapy, as well as abdominal pain, nausea and sickness. Second treatment is surgery.
Surgery is best treatment for local resectable tumor is usually an operation known as surgical resection. In some cases, the area of the liver where the malignancy is found can be completely indifferent. Alcohol injection has been shown to improve survival in people with small hepatocellular tumors. It may also be used to help reduce symptoms in cases of metastatic liver cancer. The most common side effect is leaking of alcohol onto the liver or into the abdominal cavity.
Question by wings of fire: Cancer . . .?????????????????
do you have to have cemo for all types of cancer or are there somethat doesn’t require it??
Also, what types of cancer are genetic and do both of your parents have to carry it for you to get it or does only one need to??
Please help me!
My mom had 2 types of cancer and I don’t know if my father did or not because I do not know who he is.
Answer by ironenzyme
Hi. that’s a tough question…
what types of cancer your mom have ?
Its necessary to know the stage and type to say whats the treatment !!!
Many cancer types have genetic preceding but the majority its because – pollution, alcohol. tobacco, smoke, etc
Diabetic lifestyle management is considered very necessary for maintaining a healthy diabetic life. It keeps your blood sugar level within your target range to help you live a long and healthy life with diabetes. With the proliferation of low sugar foods in the market, it has become easy to control your diabetes when you choose these low sugar items. When you are looking for food gift for diabetics among your friends and family, you should always consider those with low-carbohydrates cooking ingredients. You can present gift baskets for diabetics filled with goodies to your diabetic friends that are not harmful for their restricted diet.
You can always include sugar-free chocolate cookies, chocolate chips and brownies, cake bites and chocolate candies in your sugar free gift baskets. You can also add organic tea like green tea, vegetable soups and sugar free pound cake in your diabetic gift baskets. These low sugar foods help in lessening blood sugar levels to a greater extent.
You need to adopt a special diet to prevent diabetes once you are diagnosed as high risk or with this pre-diabetes. In addition, exercising plays an important role in dealing with the diabetes. It helps you to reduce blood sugar levels, maintain your proper weight and aids in blood circulation. Regular checkup by your physician is also very important as it gives you complete information whether you have risk factors for diabetes or if you are pre-diabetic.
Diabetes and foot pain are closely related, as foot pain is a common diabetic symptom. Foot pain can also be considered as a warning sign of diabetes. If you are suffering from diabetes, then preventing the ulceration of the feet due to excessive rubbing of the shoes becomes your primary concern. It is very important that people who suffer from diabetes should wear a certain type of shoe known as diabetic shoes for proper foot care. For example, diabetic shoes for men are designed in such a way so as to help the patient get an elevated level of comfort in their feet and help blood flow in their feet.
These are some of the best tips for maintaining a proper lifestyle for a healthy diabetic life. It is also suggested that you visit a good physician on a regular basis for a proper check up to monitor your blood sugar level. You can easily manage a balanced diabetic lifestyle with TypeFreeDiabetes.com where you can have complete information on how to control blood sugar, learn about personalizing a diet to prevent diabetes, lower your body fat, reduce your diabetes medications and reverse diabetes complications. This way you can improve your health and live a better and healthier life.
You should consume diabetes specific food available in the market that can help you in reducing the impact of diabetes by helping to regulate your blood sugar. You are also advised to have a carbohydrates free diet to prevent diabetes in the future. A healthy eating plan, exercise and medication on the regular basis can help a diabetic person live a healthy, happy and fit lifestyle.
Click Here For: Recipes For Diabetics and Sugar Free Recipes
Question by …….: Diabetes ?
I have notice when I eat something with allot of sugar my blood sugar gets really low a few hours later. I get light headed, dizzy, nervous and irritable. I also get thirty and feel really hungry. I get headaches too. When I eat something mainly with allot of carbs it goes back up. If I eat more sugar it goes up, but then suddenly drops again. Could this be diabetes? If so what type?
31 and thin
Answer by b.dunny
well it sounds like type to but it depends. are u over weight or young.
A diabetes menu planner is very important for people with Type 2 diabetes. That is because Mediterranean Food Pyramid the foods they eat to be as healthy as possible. The food you eat has a direct impact on your blood glucose, body fat, and overall health. That is why it is so important for diabetics to create a realistic diabetes diet plan. Insulin-resistant people have special Diabetes Diet and Food.
As a Type 2 diabetic, you need to be careful about the excess fat on your body. But, more importantly you need to be careful about the amount of sugar (from sugar added in processed foods, and from starches like white rice or white potato or white bread) that you eat with each meal.
For example, simple starches like white rice may spike blood sugar levels very high, very quickly for a diabetic and non-diabetic. The speed of the rise of sugar in the blood is predicted by the glycemic index rating. So, for a diabetic, eating simple starches like white rice may require careful planning.
People with diabetes must really understand the value of using the glycemic index and glycemic load concepts as important tools for eating healthy. If you must eat white rice or white potato or white white bread, plan to have protein/meat and vegetables (complex carbs), with a small amount of rice on the plate. Therefore, diabetics should always make good choices of the foods that they eat. Good choices in carbs include what you eat (on the glycemic index list) and how much you eat (as measured by glycemic load).
Diabetes Menu Planner
One of the best ways for diabetics to control the quality of their meals is to plan their diabetes menus. Diabetes menu planning means that you create a menu for the day, week, or even month that you stick to. A good diabetes menu plan will include diabetes snack options that will help to control your appetite as well as different diabetic meal options so that you don’t get bored by eating the same foods over and over again.
We at TypeFreeDiabetes.com prefer the Mediterranean food pyramid because it includes more high glycemic index carbs that most food pyramids. Obviously, the larger amounts of food and activities start at the bottom suggesting daily use, and gets smaller as you move up (weekly) toward the top which suggest monthly Diabetic Diet Foods to use.
Diabetes Menu Planning Goals
The goal of every diabetes menu plan should be to ensure that you have a balanced diet with an appropriate amount of:
• Carbohydrates (45%-65%) – Use more low Glycemic Index carbs than high
• Proteins (10%-35%) – Keep it lean
• Unsaturated fats (20%-35%) – Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated
Diabetes menu planning is an also an excellent way to keep track of calories.
The average person should consume about 2,000 calories per day to ensure that their body functions properly and they have enough energy to be active. It is also recommended that the average person consumers about:
• 100 grams of protein (at 4Cal/gram)
• 275 grams of carbohydrates (at 4 Cal/gram)
• 56 grams of fat (at 9 Cal/gram) each day (yes – it is actually important to consume fat – that is monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats from plants and fish). Eat as little saturated fats as possible. Saturated fats mostly come from non-fish animals, like birds, cows and pigs.
Www.typefreediabetes.com is dedicated to providing you the tools and diabetic meal plans to help you build your diabetes menu plan. A good Diabetes menu plan will not only provide information that is based on careful research 2000-Calorie-Meal-Plan, but we also provide a range of recipes for diabetes (including diabetes snacks, vegetarian recipes, and even diabetes desserts) that are suitable for any healthy diet.
Check out our Nutrition, and Recipes sections for more information about how you can plan your tasty diabetes menus and live a healthy lifestyle by eating well! Remember, the food choices you make will have a major impact on your blood sugar. Bad food choices will raise your blood sugar, that will cause you to use more diabetes drugs, or make you suffer severe diabetes complications. The choices are yours to make. Prevention is much more pleasant that the cure.
Click Here For: Blood Sugar Meters and Diabetes Diet Recipes
Pap smears test for cervical cancer in women. They can help to determine if you are at a higher risk for cervical cancer as well. When doctors perform pap smears, they collect cells from your cervix for testing.
Your cervix is just a few inches inside of your vagina. You will be asked to undress either completely or from the waist down for the procedure. A speculum is inserted so that your doctor can more easily get to your cervix. Cell samples are taken with a small brush or spatula. This is usually painless and is sometimes undetectable by the patient.
A pap smear helps your doctor to find cancerous or precancerous cells. Early detection is helpful when treating cervical cancer and can greatly improve your chances of overcoming this disease. A pap smear enables your doctor to initiate treatment of unusual or precancerous cells. This can help you to avoid the development of cancer.
In addition to the pap smear, your doctor will usually also perform a pelvic exam. This is basically an examination of the external anatomy of your genitals, uterus, vagina and ovaries. Your doctor will be feeling for abnormalities during this exam.
It is recommended that you have a pap smear yearly after you reach adulthood. If abnormalities are suspected, you may need one earlier in your teen years. If consistent normal results are found, then your doctor may recommend that you only have a pap smear every two to three years. If abnormalities are found, it may be recommended that you have more frequent tests. You may also need more frequent tests if you have any immunity problems, such as HIV.
If very few abnormal cells are present, then they may not be detected in the pap smear. Cervical cancer develops over many years, so it will most likely be noticed in the following pap smear without severe consequence. This is another reason that it is important to regularly get your pap smear done.
Before going to the OB/GYN for your pap smear, there are a few steps you should take. Do not have intercourse for two to three days before the test. Do not use any kind of vaginal medications, spermicidal products or lubricants during this time either. Douching can also alter the results of your test. In general, anything you insert or use vaginally for the two or three days before your pap smear can wash away or obscure abnormal cells that would have otherwise been detected.
Question by beauty_n_charge: pap smear?
i recently took a pap smear on january 29th 2008. they called me back about a week and a half after to set an appointment because the doctor need to discuss something with me or possibly do a second pap smear. im really worried if maybe somethings wrong. does anyone have an idea of what the doctor might want to talk to me about?
Answer by oscar_the_penguin
no sorry i dont know what a pap smear is :*(
Know better? Leave your own answer in the comments!
HIV/AIDS is the global issue of new era of science and technology and we should know that the problem of widespread AIDS is challenge for human survival. Children and young people need to be equipped with the knowledge, attitudes, values and skills that will help them face these challenges and assist them in making healthy life-style choices as they grow. Education delivered through schools is one of the ways through which children can be helped to face these challenges and make such choices.
Providing information about HIV (transmission, risk factors, how to avoid infection) is necessary, but not sufficient, to lead to healthy behavioral change. Programs that provide accurate information, to counteract the myths and misinformation, frequently report improvements in knowledge and attitudes, but this is poorly correlated with behavioral change related to risk taking and desirable behavioral outcomes. Education can be effective in the more difficult task of achieving and sustaining behavior change about HIV/AIDS. The schools can either be a place that practices discrimination, prejudice and undue fear or one that demonstrates society’s commitment to equity.School policies need to ensure that every child and adolescent has the right to life education; particularly when that education is necessary for survival and avoidance of HIV infection.
HIV infection is one of the major problems facing school-age children today. They face fear if they are ignorant, discrimination if they or a family member or friend is infected, and suffering and death if they are not able to protect themselves from this preventable disease.
It is estimated that 40 million people, worldwide, are living with HIV or have AIDS, at least a third of these are young people aged 15-24. In 1998 more than 3 million young people worldwide became infected including 590,000 children under 15. More than 8,500 children and young people become infected with HIV each day. In many countries over 50% of all infections are among 15-24 years old, who will likely develop AIDS in a period ranging from several months to more than 10 years.
Studies have shown the enormous impact HIV and AIDS have on the education sector and the quality of education provided, particularly in certain regions of the world such as Sub Saharan Africa. Consequences of the AIDS epidemic include a probable decrease in the demand for education, coupled with absenteeism and an increase in the number of orphans and school drop out, especially among girls. Girls are socially and economically more vulnerable to conditions that force people to accept risk of HIV infection in order to survive. A decrease in education for girls will have serious negative effects on progress made over the past decade toward providing an adequate education for girls and women. Reduced numbers of classes or schools, a shortage of teachers and other personnel, and shrinking resources for educational systems all impair the prospects for education.
Effective HIV/AIDS education and prevention is needed in all schools for all children so that no one is left ignorant. Yet in many places schools are apprehensive about providing sex education or discussions of sexuality because of cultural demands to protect adolescents from sexual experience. Women often lack skills needed to communicate their concerns with their sexual partners and to practice behaviors that reduce their risk of infection, such as condom use, which is often controlled by men.
The school can either be a place that practices discrimination, prejudice and undue fear or one that demonstrates society’s commitment to equity. School policies need to ensure that every child and adolescent has the right to HIV/AIDS education; particularly when that education is necessary for survival and avoidance of HIV infection.
A UNAIDS review (1997) of 53 studies which assessed the effectiveness of programs to prevent HIV infection and related health problems among young people concluded that sex education programs do not lead to earlier or increased sexual activity among young people, in fact the opposite seems to be true. 22 reported that HIV and/or sexual health education either delayed the onset of sexual activity, reduced the number of sexual partners or reduced unplanned pregnancies and STD rates. 27 studies reported that HIV/AIDS and sexual health neither increased nor decreased sexual activity, pregnancy or STD.
The review concluded that school based interventions are an effective way to reduce risk behaviors associated with HIV/AIDS/STD among children and adolescents.
There are three main objectives for this paper to integrate the education effectively with the HIV/AIDS preventions and other health aspects related with it.
These are as follows:
1) Health education focusing on HIV/AIDS prevention.
2) Raising awareness about HIV/AIDS among educators and learners.
3) Stimulate peer support and HIV/AIDS counseling in schools.
The main focus of the paper is to give the importance to the HIV/AIDS precaution with the health education raising the awareness about it among all the students as well as their teachers also and provide the supportive environment for the HIV/AIDS education for all.
Need of HIV/AIDS education:
In area such as HIV/AIDS prevention individual behavior, social and peer pressure, cultural norms and abusive relationships may all contribute to the health and lifestyle problems of children and adolescents. There is now increasing evidence that in tackling these issues and health problems, a healthy approach to HIV/AIDS and sex education works, and is more effective than teaching knowledge alone. T
here are numerous studies indicating that providing information about issues such as sex, STDs (Sexually Transmitted Diseases) and HIV (transmission, risk factors, how to avoid infection) is necessary, but not sufficient, to lead to healthy behavioral change (Hubley, 2000). Programs that provide accurate information, to counteract the myths and misinformation, frequently report improvements in knowledge and attitudes, but this is poorly correlated with behavioral change related to risk taking and desirable behavioral outcomes (Gatawa 1995, UNAIDS 1997a). HIV/AIDS with health education can be effective in the more difficult task of achieving and sustaining behavior change.
Health education with HIV/AIDS is widely applicable:
This problems largely affecting men and women as well as older children and adolescents, both this age group and younger children also face a wider range of health problems where education can play a vital role in sustainable prevention and management. Health education with HIV/AIDS programs plays a vital role in preventing infections. This is done through promoting knowledge of areas such as symptoms, transmission, and behaviors that are specifically relevant to many infection in each community; attitudes such as responsibility for personal, family and community health, confidence to change unhealthy habits; skills such as avoiding behaviors that are likely to cause infection, encourage others to change unhealthy habits, communicate messages about infection to families, peers and members of the community (WHO, 1996).
This kind of health education with HIV/AIDS prevention focuses upon the development of Knowledge, Attitudes, Values, and Skills (including life skills such as inter-personal skills, critical and creative thinking, decision making and self awareness) needed to make and act on the most appropriate and positive health-related decisions. Health in this context extends beyond physical health to include psycho-social and environmental health issues.
This approach utilizes student centered and participatory methodologies, giving participants the opportunity to explore and acquire health promoting knowledge, attitudes and values and to practice the skills they need to avoid risky and unhealthy situations and adopt and sustain healthier life styles.
HIV/AIDS – a critical need for health education:
HIV/AIDS is an area where the scale and impact of the problem is such that the urgency of implementing preventative measures, including health education, is critical. Health education programs are being increasingly adopted as means of reaching children and young people to help halt the spread of this crippling epidemic. Studies from African countries show that children between the ages of 5 and 14 have the lowest prevalence of HIV infection. Below the age of 5 they are susceptible to mother to child transmission and after they become sexually active, the rate of infection increases rapidly – especially for girls (Kelly, 2000). Children aged 5-14 need to be reached at this critical stage in their lives and offer the ‘window of hope’ in stopping the spread of HIV/AIDS.
Health Education with HIV/AIDS prevention Does Change Behavior:
There is now strong evidence from an increasing number of studies that health education HIV/AIDS prevention applied in an appropriate context, changes behavior – including behavior in sensitive and difficult areas where knowledge based health education has failed.
For example: Sexuality and HIV education –USA:
This study was implemented in 4 schools in New York City with 9th and 11th grade students (867 students), in intervention (AIDS prevention program) and control classes (no AIDS prevention program). The program focused on correcting facts about AIDS, teaching cognitive skills to appraise risk of transmission, increasing knowledge of AIDS-prevention resources, changing perceptions of risk-taking behavior, clarifying personal values, understanding external influences and teaching skills to delay intercourse and/or consistently use condoms. An evaluation carried out three months after the end of the program found that the intervention group showed the following positive behavioral outcomes when compared with the control group: decrease in intercourse with high risk partners, increase in monogamous relationships and an increase in consistent condom use. (Walter & Vaughan, 1993).
Health education programs are being implemented in many schools in Nigeria to increase levels of knowledge, influence attitudes and encourage safe sexual practices among secondary school students. A study to evaluate one such program was conducted comparing 223 students who received comprehensive sexual health education with 217 controls. Students in the intervention group received 6 weekly sessions lasting 2-6 hours, with activities including lectures, film shows, role-play stories, songs, debates, essays and a demonstration of the correct use of condoms. Following the intervention, students in the intervention group showed a greater knowledge and increased tolerance of people with AIDS compared to the control. The mean number of sexual partners also decreased in the intervention group, while the control group showed a slight increase. The program was also successful in increasing condom use (Fawole et al., 1999) Above mentioned studies shows that health education with HIV/AIDS prevention does change the behavior of students especially adolescents.
Method for implementing Health Education with HIV/AIDS prevention:
Although there is strong evidence that HIV/AIDS prevention is effective when properly applied and supported, implementing this approach and achieving this success on a larger, countrywide scale is one of the greatest challenges to be faced.
To be effective, HIV/AIDS prevention programs must address the following areas:
•Reassure stakeholders that these messages are beneficial:
Talking and teaching about reproductive health and HIV/AIDS issues does not result in earlier initiation of sex or promiscuity. The evidence suggests that well implemented skills-based programs, conducted in an atmosphere of free discussion of all the issues, is likely to lead to young people delaying the initiation of intercourse and reducing the frequency of intercourse and number of sexual partners (Kirby et al. 1994, UNAIDS 1997a).
•Provide support to teachers: The lack of support for implementation of new programs is one of the most important factors affecting success. For most teachers both the content and methods of HIV/AIDS prevention programs are new and perhaps sensitive, and yet the approach has great potential to assist teachers both in their work and also their personal lives since HIV/AIDS is, of course, also affecting teachers. Sufficient support, training, practice and time needs to be available to teachers, in both pre- and in-service training sessions and workshops, to facilitate reflection and development of their own attitudes, and to motivate them to apply their new knowledge and skills, rather than continue with the more didactic, traditional teaching methods, which are often focused on information alone (Gatawa 1995, Gachuhi 1999). In addition, sufficient time and an appropriate place must also be given in the curriculum so that all students have access to HIV/AIDS prevention.
•Start early: As well as targeting adolescents, programs need to be targeted at children at an early age, with developmentally appropriate messages, before they leave school (Gachuhi 1999, Partnership for Child Development 1998). Because younger children are generally not sexually active, these programs will address the building blocks for healthy living and avoiding risk, rather than the very specific issues related to sexual relationships and HIV/AIDS which are progressively introduced to programs for older ages. However, the large number and diverse age range of children within primary schools is an enduring challenge, especially when addressing sensitive issues. Active and self-directed learning methods which are commonly used in education can be helpful in overcoming these classroom management issues to some extent.
•Provide a supportive environment: Schools need to have strong policies and a healthy supportive environment in terms of behavior of students towards each other, teachers and school personnel. Sexual abuse can occur in schools, with both boys and girls reporting abuse by school staff (Kinsman et al. 1999, Lowensen et al. 1996). Programs need to address this potential problem by training and supporting teachers, so that they can become role models rather than neutral or adverse figures in relation to sexual behavior.
•Respond to local needs: Many of the models for HIV/AIDS prevention have been developed in western, developed countries. The available evidence from developing countries, although more limited in scope than the studies from non-developing countries, supports skills-based health education for HIV/AIDS and reproductive health (Hubley, 2000). The main issue is that wherever programs are to be implemented they must be shaped to meet the local socio-cultural norms, values and religious beliefs, and need to include ongoing monitoring (Kirby et al 1994, UNAIDS 1999, Kinsman et al.1999).
Elements of a Health Education for HIV/AIDS prevention:
Reviews of school-based HIV/AIDS prevention programs (23 studies in the USA (Kirby et al. 1994), 37 other countries (reported in UNAIDS 1999) and 53 studies in USA, Europe and elsewhere (UNAIDS 1997a) have identified the following common characteristics of successful programs:
1.Focus on a few specific behavioral goals, (such as delaying initiation of intercourse or using protection), which requires knowledge, attitude and skill objectives.
2.Provision of basic, accurate information that is relevant to behavior change, especially the risks of unprotected intercourse and methods of avoiding unprotected intercourse. 3.Reinforcement of clear and appropriate values to strengthen individual values and group norms against unprotected sex.
4.Modeling and practice in communication and negotiation skills particularly, as well as other related “life skills”.
5.Use of Social Learning theories as a foundation for program development.
6.Addressing social influences on sexual behaviors, including the important role of media and peers.
7.Use of participatory activities (games, role playing, group discussions etc.) to achieve the objectives of personalizing information, exploring attitudes and values, and practicing skills.
8.Extensive training for teachers/implementers to allow them to master the basic information about HIV/AIDS and to practice and become confident with life skills training methods.
9.Support for reproductive health and HIV/STD prevention programs by school authorities, decision and policy makers, as well as the wider community.
10.Evaluation (e.g. of outcomes, design, implementation, sustainability, school, student and community support) so that programs can be improved and successful practices encouraged.
11.Age-appropriateness, targeting students in different age groups and developmental stages with appropriate messages that are relevant to young people. For example one goal of targeting younger students, who are not yet sexually active, might be to delay the initiation of intercourse, whereas for sexually active students the emphasis might be to reduce the number of sexual partners and use condoms.
12.Gender sensitive, for both boys and girls.
Health Education with HIV/AIDS prevention offers an effective approach to equipping children and young people with the knowledge, attitudes and skills that they need to help them avoid risk taking behavior and adopt healthier life styles. The scope of health education means that it can be applied to a wide range of areas, especially STDs and HIV/AIDS prevention, but also including violence, substance abuse, unwanted situations such as early pregnancy and all areas where knowledge and attitudes play a critical role in promoting a healthy lifestyle for children and young people growing up in the 21st century. We can sum it in following points- •The constitutional rights of learners and educators must be protected equally.
•There should not be compulsory disclosure of HIV/AIDS status.
•No HIV positive learner or educator may be discriminated against.
•Learners must receive education about HIV/AIDS and abstinence in the context of life- skills education as part of the integrated curriculum.
•Educational institutions should ensure that learners acquire age and context appropriate knowledge and skills to enable them to behave in ways that will protect them from infection.
•Educators need more knowledge of, and skills to deal with HIV/AIDS and should be trained to give guidance on HIV/AIDS.
Suggestions for implications for policies and programmes:
•Male and female condom promotion efforts need to recognize, identify and address gender issues including sexual and other forms of violence, that inhibit condom use.
•HIV/AIDS, peer education, and sex education programmes for adolescents that incorporate gender equality issues into their framework should be fostered. Such programmes should enable a better understanding of how norms related to masculinity and femininity may increase risky sexual behaviour, and help young people begin thinking about how to work towards equal and responsible relationships.
•Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) services should take into account the risk of violence and other adverse consequences when evaluating different approaches to disclosure. For example, patients can be given the choice of counsellor-mediated disclosure if that would help minimise adverse consequences.
•Both men and women should be involved in Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMtCT) programmes. Antenatal services can educate men about sexuality, fertility and HIV prevalence to raise their awareness and sense of responsibility. This would avoid reinforcing the belief that women alone are responsible for pregnancy and for HIV transmission to the infant.
•Community Home Based Care (CBBC) approaches need to include a special effort to promote the role of men as care-givers in the family and community, and to provide adequate support and guidance to enable male participation. At the very least, such programmes should acknowledge that reliance on “home care” is, at present, largely reliance on “women’s care”.
1.Fawole, I.O., Asuzu, M.C., Oduntan, S.O., Brieger, W.R. (1999). A school-based AIDS education program for secondary school students in Nigeria: a review of effectiveness. Health Education Research – Theory & Practice, 14: 675-683.
2.Gachuhi, D. (1999). The impact of HIV/AIDS on education systems in the Eastern and Southern Africa region and the response of education systems to HIV/AIDS: Life Skills Programs.
3.Gatawa, B.G. (1995). Zimbabwe: AIDS Education for schools. Case Study. UNICEF Harare Zimbabwe.
4.Hubley, J. (2000). Interventions targeted at youth aimed at influencing sexual behavior and AIDS/STDs. Leeds Health Education Database, April 2000.
5.Kelly, M.J. (2000). Standing education on its head: Aspects of schooling in a world with HIV/AIDS. Current Issues in Comparative Education. 3(1).
6.Kinsman, J., Harrison, S., Kengeya-Kayondo, J., Kanyesigye, E., Musoke, S. & Whitworth, J. (1999). Implementation of a comprehensive AIDS education program for schools in Masaka District, Uganda. AIDS CARE, 11(5): 591-601.
7.Kirby, D., Short, L., Collins, J., Rugg, D. et al. (1994). School-based programs to reduce sexual risk behaviors: a review of effectiveness. Public Health Reports, 109(3): 339-361.
8.Lowensen, R., Edwards, L. & Ndlovu-Hove, P. (1996). Reproductive health rights in Zimbabwe. Training and Research Support Centre (TARSC).
9.UNAIDS (1997a). Impact of HIV and sexual health education on the sexual behavior of young people: a review update.
10.UNAIDS (1997b). Learning and teaching about AIDS at school. UNAIDS technical update, October 1997.
11.Walter, H. & Vaughan, R. (1993). AIDS risk reduction among a multiethnic sample of urban high school students. JAMA, 270(6): 725-730.
12.WHO (1996). Preventing HIV/AIDS/STI and related discrimination: an important responsibility of health promoting schools. WHO series on school health, document six.
HIV and AIDS are not the same thing, but the virus can lead to the disease. Learn how in this video. See more videos on HIV & AIDS: www.sexhealthguru.com
Question by Claire D: Hiv ????????????????????????????
Does having all the hiv symptoms mean you have hiv ?
Answer by Europen
No symptom equals HIV
Only a blood test can tell
Know better? Leave your own answer in the comments!
Pregnancy is a course of rebirth for every woman as she comes a full circle of life at this point. She is giving birth to a new body and soul. Teen pregnancy especially needs the right guidance. The kind of life and diet you lead defines the health and life of your baby during the pregnancy period.
Whom To Contact During Teen Pregnancy?
Constant pre-natal care from your doctor, nutrition experts and clinic as well as family and friends is one of the basic things to be followed. Drinking and smoking should be avoided at all costs as it causes irreparable damage to the little one inside. Drugs prescribed by the doctor are the only ones to be taken. A balanced and nutritional diet should be top priority. Teenage pregnancies are always laden with the risks of going back to drugs, smoking; as a result the babies develop immature organs/systems, even retardation in many cases and the most dominant, early death during infancy.
Correct Nutrition and Medication during Teen Pregnancy:
Since, a teenager’s body is still growing, it is necessary to eat the right amount of pregnancy diet that is essential for you as well as your baby. Correct composition of vitamins and minerals are required mainly in case of a teen pregnancy. It is normal to gain 25-30 pounds during pregnancy and the minimum intake of calories per day should be no less than 300.Gaining weight is much more important if you want to breastfeed the child. Never skip meals and avoid junk food as much as possible as the have very little or no nutrient value at all. If you cannot afford nutritious food, inform your health care providers and ask them for advice and they will enroll you into the Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) program.
LOVE AND CARE MOST REQUIRED TO DEAL WITH TEEN PREGNANCY:
The prevalence of teenage pregnancy is the highest in the U.S and most of such pregnancies end up in premature deliveries or abortions. Most of them are unintended. No strenuous exercises should be done during this period, but a brisk walk for 15-20 minutes or a game of basketball would be fine. The main cause of teenage pregnancy is the lack of knowledge and awareness. Every parent should discuss the pros and cons of having teenage pregnancies. School education has led to a 10% decrease in teenage pregnancy. Even though it is good to see this, we should understand that a teenage mother-to-be needs extra support and care, as they are incapable of handling the stress of teenage pregnancy. As they are not educated enough, many teenagers do not understand the problem associated with teenage pregnancy and smoking/drinking and intake of drugs. Therefore, all they require during this hard time is to get the unconditional and unending support and advice of their gynecologist and family as well as loved ones. Therefore, teenage pregnancy can be done away with proper communication and education about it, but until that time all the teenage pregnancies and the teenage mothers need to be handled with all the care and love possible.
The information provided in this article is not intended to substitute medical information and guidance. Please consult your pregnancy doctor or health care provider for more information or before following any treatment, activity or exercise mentioned herein.
Teen Pregnancy Video by me, Nick Rau teen pregnancy teen pregnancy teen pregnancy teen pregnancy teen pregnancy teen pregnancy teen pregnancy teen pregnancy teen pregnancy teen pregnancy teen pregnancy teen pregnancy teen pregnancy teen pregnancy teen pregnancy teen pregnancy teen pregnancy… Video Rating: 4 / 5
Question by volleyballpro129: Teen Pregnancy?
Hi, my name is Caitlin. I am planning on writing a story about teen pregnancy. If you were a pregnant teen, are a pregnant teen, or witnessed teen pregnancy, and would like to help, tell me your story. (no personal info will be used.)
Please please help me if you have a story to tell.
Please use details!! Thankyou sooo much!!
Answer by ♥chyeahh, it’s me♥
Well, I got pregnant when I was 18. I had 3 months of my senior year of highschool left. (I DID graduate by the way)… I got pregnant after having sex with my boyfriend of 1 month! We had a rocky relationship because I was a crabby pregnant biotch! LOL! We ended up getting together for good when I was 5 months pregnant.. we got a house together.. we got married.. had our baby girl… Got pregnant again and we are still very much in love! .. He has a good job and I am going to school this fall for nursing. Our daughters are 11 months apart.. Our oldest is 19 months old and our youngest is 8 months old.
BUT, teen pregnancy’s dont always work out that way. I was lucky to have all the support I had… and very lucky to have a man put up with my crap (from being a crabby pregnant girl) and for him to be a great daddy and stick around to help raise his kids… Most teenage dads dont. .. My husband is 21 and I will be 21 in august!
Resolving the Medicare lien is the claimant’s problem.
Resolving Medicare’s right to reimbursement of payments for medical treatment related to an injury upon which a negligence, workers’ comp, malpractice, no fault or other civil law claim has been made is the obligation of every party to the injury claim.
The Medicare Secondary Payer (MSP) statute -42 USC 1395y(b)(2)-, regulations under that statute -42 CFR 411.21 et seq.- and the Medicare, Medicaid and SCHIP Extension Act of 2007 -42 USC 1395y(8)- create obligations on the part of the Medicare beneficiary, the beneficiary’s attorney, the party against whom a civil claim is made by a Medicare beneficiary and the insurers of both the beneficiary and the claim respondent. Those obligations include reporting the claim to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), reimbursing past payments made by Medicare related to the claim and protecting Medicare’s interests related to future payments related to the claim.
The personal injury claim respondent and its insurer need not worry about the Medicare lien if there is no finding or admission of liability for the injury that was treated by Medicare.
The MSP statute makes clear that the party / insurer claimed to be responsible to cover treatment that in fact has been provided by Medicare becomes primary to Medicare and thus owes reimbursement by making any payment in settlement of the claim, even if liability for the injury/treatment is never established and in fact is denied. 42 USC 1395y(b)(2)(B)(ii).
No one needs to worry about a Medicare lien unless Medicare takes some affirmation action to notify parties of the lien and requests reimbursement.
Medicare is not required to notify anyone of its right to reimbursement and is not required to make a request for reimbursement in order to enforce its right to recovery. Federal law obligates the parties to the injury claim to notify Medicare of the claim and to take specific action to determine the amount of the reimbursement amount and to make reimbursement within a specified period of time.
Medicare is only entitled to recover reimbursement from that portion of the settlement allocated to medical expenses.
Medicare’s right to reimbursement is not dependent on whether or to what extent there is any allocation of the settlement to various types of loss. However, Medicare does recognize allocations of settlements to nonmedical losses when payment is based on a court order on the merits of the case and will not seek recovery from portions of court awards designated as payment for nonmedical losses. Medicare Secondary Payer Manual, section 50.4.4.
Initiating contact with Medicare regarding resolution of its right to reimbursement should not be done until the claim is settled.
Resolving a Medicare lien is a multi-step process that can take months to complete and should be started well before settlement is reached. Those steps include reporting the claim to Medicare’s Coordination of Benefits Contractor, communicating with the Medicare Secondary Payer Recovery Contractor to determine what Medicare payments were and were not related to the underlying claim and, when required, asking that the Medicare lien amount be compromised or waived in order to allow the claim to settle. In many cases it makes more sense to handle lien waiver and compromise negotiations before settlement is reached.
There is no process for review or appeal from a determination on a Medicare lien determination.
There is an established, multi-level review and appeal process from the determination of the amount Medicare is entitled to recover.
The new mandatory insurer reporting law requires the use of Medicare set-asides in settlement of non-workers’ compensation cases.
The Medicare, Medicaid and SCHIP Extension Act of 2007 imposes new requirements for reporting of negligence, no fault, malpractice, uninsured motorist and other non-workers’ compensation claims of Medicare beneficiaries. The law does not expand the requirement for the creation of Medicare set-aside accounts beyond the current requirement for use of set-asides in settlement of certain workers’ compensation cases.
Implementation of the new reporting requirements has led to greater awareness of the already existing obligation of the parties to personal injury claims of all kinds to protect Medicare’s interests in settlement of those claims. Even in non-workers’ compensation settlements, Medicare set-asides may be used to demonstrate that the parties took Medicare’s interests into consideration in the settlement. However, there are other ways to protect Medicare’s interests in non-workers’ compensation settlement short of creating a set-aside account.
Where the Medicare lien exceeds the amount of the settlement (or exceeds the amount of the policy limits) the entire settlement amount will be taken by Medicare.
Medicare’s final reimbursement demand will reflect reductions in consideration of attorney fees and costs incurred in prosecuting the personal injury claim under 42 CFR 411.37 and Medicare has a process for waiving its reimbursement or compromising the amount of its recovery depending on the individual facts and circumstances of the case. 42 CFR 411.28; 42 CFR 401.613
Attorneys representing parties to personal injury claims don’t have to worry about penalties or sanctions directed at them if their clients don’t comply with Medicare reimbursement and reporting requirements.
CFR 411.24(g) makes an attorney who receives funds from a primary payer liable to reimburse Medicare conditional payments. The federal courts have recognized the attorney’s obligations and liability for payment to Medicare when reimbursement requirements are not met. U.S. v. Paul J. Harris, 2009 WL 891931 (N.D.W.Va.)
In most states rules are in effect governing attorney conduct modeled on ABA Model Rule 1.15(d), requiring attorneys to notify third parties (such as Medicare) when client funds in which the third party may have an interest come into the attorney’s hands and to deliver client funds to the third party once the third party’s interests are established.
Attorneys have an established obligation to Medicare and May 2009 amendments to the federal False Claims Act create the opportunity for expanded sanctions against attorneys for failing to comply with an obligation owed to an agency of the federal government.
Medicare reimbursement requests only include payments made by Medicare that were for treatment related to the injury involved in the underlying personal injury claim.
Although Medicare is only entitled to reimbursement of payment made for treatment of the injury involved in the personal injury claim the reality is that many Medicare requests for reimbursement include payments made by Medicare to treat medical conditions that pre-existed the claim injury or were otherwise unrelated to the claim injury. It is important to audit the reimbursement requests to identify and then challenge the request for reimbursement of payments for unrelated treatment.
Despite recent economic strain, US citizens on the cusp of senior status are still springing into action when it comes to purchasing Medicare supplement plans in anticipation of upcoming healthcare needs. With inflation rates and projected healthcare costs continually escalating, it seems as though many emerging senior citizens may need to take extra precautions, in terms of both personal savings and Medicare supplement selection.
A recent study performed by the Employee Benefits Research Institute (EBRI) describes the degree of savings needed to obtain a quality medicare supplement plan:
“…a man retiring this year at age 65 will likely need between ,000 to 8,000 in savings to cover insurance premiums and out-of-pocket expenses during retirement. The differences in dollar amounts are based on the statistical chances of an individual having enough money. In other words, it one wants to be 90% sure of having enough in savings, he would need the higher amount; for a 50% chance he would need at least the lower amount.”
The EBRI study also described the divergence between supplement plans for men and women.
“Because women live longer, they need even more money. A women retiring at age 65 in 2009 will need from ,000 to 2,000 in savings to cover insurance premiums and out-of-pocket expenses in retirement for a 50/50 chance of having enough money, and 4,000 to 0,000 for a 90% chance, said the report’s author, Paul Fronstin, an EBRI researcher.”
Due to these striking figures and countless others, many soon-to-be retirees are reconsidering their options. Instead of shifting directly into a life of leisure, many current 50-somethings are beginning to save their money more scrupulously. This shift in priorities has been understandably upsetting to many, but imperative nonetheless.
The current state of Medicare and the overall healthcare system has made selecting the right Medicare supplement plan more important than ever, and by working with the experts at MedicareSupplementShop.com, you can rest assured that you have gotten the best possible value for your healthcare dollar.
You can stop smoking! Welcome back to your detailed quit smoking plan, and congratulations on your decision to stop smoking. If you are seeing the second part of this series without having seen the first, you may want to find it.
Full Day 1
Since you were able to excrete most of the nicotine in your body already, your physical craving is significantly less severe than it would have been if you had smoked right before having gone to bed. Your actual ‘habit’ of smoking in the morning, though, is another story. You may find yourself reaching for cigarettes automatically only to remember that this is the first day of the rest of your life not smoking!
If it’s a weekend and you have no prior commitments: Lethargy is a common symptom when you first quit smoking. Feel free to stay in bed! If you really have nothing to do, you’re just begging for self destructive idle time, anyway. You have the right to baby yourself when you’re sick, and to stop smoking is to deal with a life threatening illness from which you owe it to yourself to claim your freedom! If it’s within your power in the first 24-48 hours, take time to recover!
If you have to go to work: In your process of telling your co-workers of your plans to quit smoking you will have been able to identify the non-smokers who are encouraging you to stop smoking for good. Find them at breaks and lunch, and adopt their non-smoking habits. When break time comes, keep your affirmations strong by changing – yet still acknowledging – the proclamation your desire to have a cigarette. Say out loud, “I am having a temporary craving that will pass;” or something along those lines…Never, “I want a cigarette,” or “I need to smoke,” or any other self defeating affirmation.
Your stress level (obviously) is likely to be high on your first day after you stop smoking, so try to be extra mindful of the way you interact with those around you.
Around the hour you quit on the previous day, you can expect the corresponding time frame to deliver you a serious rush of anxiety and tension. This could only last anywhere from a few minutes to a few hours, but the most likely scenario is that it may continue for a couple days. It will pass! You do not have to smoke. Taking measures with a natural stop smoking treatment, or another smoking cessation aid will help make these symptoms much less severe.
Beware: If you smoke at this critical juncture, you could lose all willingness to even try to quit smoking for weeks, months, or even years! The disease of nicotine is cunning, baffling, and powerful; and it will go to great lengths to prevent you from giving up tobacco. If you’ve made it this far, hold on; because it WILL get easier.
During your normal every day actions during which you used to smoke like drinking, talking on the telephone, or flipping through channels with the remote; start using your ex-smoking hand for these activities so it’s not sitting there doing nothing while your other hand is completing all the work. This may sound insignificant, but it’s actually a quite effective tool in the battle against smoking addiction.
Argh! (No, seriously) You are all but guaranteed to be going crazy with fiend for a cigarette. While the actual cravings don’t last long, your nerves are going through a restoration process that is a natural part of nicotine withdrawals; which means that – even when you’re not wanting to smoke necessarily – you are just in a state of discontentment and aggravation because of the discomfort and shortness of temper caused by the depletion of dopamine, endorphins and other naturally produced chemicals that smoking took over for your body.
Your brain, nerves, lungs, and every other organ in your body that was affected by smoking (there are many) are all learning – just as you are – to adjust to life without cigarettes. They will heal, but the process is not comfortable. Do not let it be your reason to give in. You can stop smoking!
Generally, the feelings of anxiety are still somewhat strong, and they may or may not be starting to disappear. Hopefully, you are still carrying around your list of your reasons not to smoke to which you need to refer every time you are thinking about lending the power back to your nicotine addiction. You are at the most stressful part of your journey, and everything will start to get easier from here, so stay strong and don’t give up!
Finally, things are starting to return to normal. Your body will begin to regulate its production of vital mood stabilizing chemicals that it once produced all on its own before nicotine interrupted the process, and your coping abilities should be starting to bear a more civilized nature. Your appetite will be out of control. Allow yourself to indulge, but don’t go overboard and remember about the healthful snacking!
Personally, this day for me has historically been rough. It’s a type of comfort zone in which you are in grave danger of relapse. Do not mosey on over to a smoking co-worker or make a sly plan in the morning to meet up with a friend who smokes for lunch or another affair, either! Again…Cunning, baffling, and powerful! Don’t let your disease fool you!
Hopefully, at this point of the game you are adjusting nicely to life without cigarettes. Your senses have possibly returned to a degree you hadn’t even realized was possible; and your lungs are definitely feeling better. Your cough, however, may have been getting increasingly worse at this point. That’s normal, and it could last for the next few weeks. You may be able to minimize the side effects with a homeopathic stop smoking treatment.
Congratulations! This is a huge milestone in your journey! Today is the day that your brain finishes the process of creating new habits! Everything you do will get easier and easier from here on out! You’re not out of the woods, yet, though, because your disease is still at work trying to convince you to start smoking again. Be aware of its attempts throughout the day to convince you that you can have just one cigarette or even one drag…You can’t!
Even if you are able to stop with one drag or one smoke the first time, that will give you permission for the next time; then that will give you permission to smoke again until you’ve increased your level of smoking to that which is just a bit more cigarettes in a day than you were smoking before you quit. Some of the tricks your smoking addiction will try to play on you include:
Going to the smoking section at work
Making plans with a friend or family member who smokes
Engaging in behaviors that are conducive to smoking (going to bars, drinking excessively, etc.)
Encouraging you to stop a complete stranger you see smoking outside as you’re leaving the supermarket or eating establishment to ask for a cigarette.
Stay vigilant in your guard against your disease, and start enjoying life without smoking. You will quickly realize how much money you’re saving. Many smokers like to reward themselves with a teeth whitening kit or a special shopping spree with the money they are no longer spending on cigarettes. You deserve it! You’ve accomplished something very difficult that will undoubtedly add years onto your life.
Remember that your nicotine addiction is a powerful disease that is always at work. It is in the back of your mind strength training and getting stronger behind your back. Stay aware of the dangers that await you around every corner. You are only one drag away from a relapse that could claim your life. You CAN quit smoking! Make the decision to stop smoking today!
Nutrition is all about what a person with diabetes eats. Nutrition and diet mean the same thing. A person with diabetes has 3 ways to control their blood sugar levels: Nutrition, physical activity and medication. The combination of good diabetes nutritional supplements and physical activity prevent pre-diabetes and Type 2 diabetes.
The Food Pyramids
Good Supplements for diabetes involves maintaining a well-balanced Diabetic diet plan that includes whole grains, protein, dairy, vegetables, fruit and some unsaturated fats.
Americans are accustomed to seeing the traditional Food and Drug Administration pyramid on every cereal box and FDA-approved publication. While the American food guide pyramid is by all means healthy and comprehensive, we thought it would be fun to share food guide pyramids reflecting the histories of many other ethnic beginnings, cultures and beliefs.
The importance of nutrition for Diabetics requires that we find all sorts of ways to help you create a useful Diabetes food pyramid. To meet that goal will keep working to bring missing pyramids to you. As an option, pick one and adopt it as your own. Eating in the ways of our traditions cannot be a bad thing.
Remember how much smaller plate sizes were, so watch your portions. Click to see Portion Control PlatesAlso, remember how physically active our great grand-parents were, so daily exercise is a must.
Physical activity and exercise is the key to making good diabetes nutrition work. We have to burn excess sugar and fat that we eat. If we choose the traditional approach to eating, it is important to note that we are choosing a way of life, not just the foods that we grew up with and love.
Core Principles of Diabetic food Diet and Nutrition
Why is Nutrition Important?
The core principles of proper diabetic supplements are centered on reducing blood sugar levels and increasing healthy vitamins and minerals in the diet. diabetics, especially, should adhere to the principles of the Diabetes Food Pyramid in order to ensure that they have balanced diabetes nutrition to keep their bodies healthy.
However, unlike the general population, diabetics are not always able to process glucose at the cellular level . That is why, it is important for diabetics to understand the chemical reactions that take place in their bodies as they eat food. Understanding the biology of Diabetes is the first step in taking control of your diabetes treatment so that you can live a healthy Diabetics life.
Many Diabetics feel overwhelmed when they are first diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, Type 1 diabetes, or Gestational Diabetes. Properly managed diabetes, will required you to make some basic lifestyle changes, especially in the way that you approach food. You will definitely need to limit your sugar/carbohydrates in-take.
For example, love pasta? Yes you can still have this food that you love. Only now, a better choice is whole wheat pasta instead of the traditional styles of pasta. Also, you need to limit your food serving sizes (one serving = 1/2cup cooked or baseball) instead of all you can eat. Generally, for all the foods that you love, there is an acceptable alternative that makes you happy and your blood glucose level also.
Know that these lifestyle changes are entirely manageable and will make you healthier and happier as you begin to incorporate them into your regular eating habits. You can feel comfort knowing that millions of diabetics have had to make simple changes to their nutrition plans. To help Diabetics enjoy healthier food choices, many diabetes organizations have developed tips, diabetes meal plans, food, and healthy eating guidelines. Use our interactive learning module on Sugars and Starches to learn more.
Diabetes Healthy Eating Guidelines
Diabetes is a disease that is directly related to your sugar intake and corresponding blood sugar level. Due to the nature of diabetes, the body cannot process sugars the way that it should. Therefore, in order to keep your blood sugar level as low as possible, it is important to limit the amount of sugar/carbs that you eat and take all medications prescribed by your doctor. Remember that a starch unit can made up of thousands of glucose units.